Periodontics is a branch of dentistry believed to be developed in prehistoric era. Since then many advances in the treatment procedure has made it more effective and reliable. Periodontics mainly aims to treat the surrounding structures which supports teeth. The structures included are gums, cementum, bone, and periodontal ligament. These structures, together, are commonly known as periodontium.
Who Is A Periodontist?
A periodontist is a dental expert who specializes to correct deformities affecting tooth-supporting tissues. They are able to handle mild or complex cases of periodontal diseases. In addition to dental school teaching, a periodontist receive extra 3 years training in the periodontal field. Other disease conditions treated by a periodontist include root planning and scaling, severe gum tissue problems, root surface debridement, dental implant placement, and oral inflammation.
Good Candidate For Periodontics
A complete evaluation and diagnosis of periodontal disease is needed if a person shows following features:
- Have short teeth
- Experiencing gummy smile
- Severe irritation or sore in mouth
- Presence of other health conditions such as diabetes, heart disease or respiratory disease
Periodontal literally means “near the tooth”. Periodontal disease is seen to occur when the teeth or nearby tissues are infected. These diseases can affect either a single tooth or more teeth. The main cause of periodontal disease is overgrowth of bacteria which resides inside the mouth. Periodontal disease includes conditions such as periodontitis and gingivitis. Periodontitis mainly affects the tooth. It causes tooth loss, and in severe cases results in heart attacks or strokes. On the other hand, gingivitis affects the gums or other tissues near teeth. However, with appropriate treatment procedures it can be reversed.
There exists many risk factors which increase the chances of periodontal diseases. They include:
- Some hormonal changes in body
- Intake of some medications
- Health disorders like diabetes, AIDS, and cancer
- Genetic disorder
Prior to treatment, the severity in disease condition is detected using Florida Probe System method. Depending upon the results, accurate treatment procedure is chosen. The treatments include:
- Non-surgical Treatments
Non-surgical method is mainly adopted when the periodontal disease condition has not advanced. These methods aim to produce a healthy and hygienic environment inside mouth. This enhances healing of affected tissues. Non-surgical method includes:
◦ Professional dental cleaning
This is done to remove excessive tartar and plague. They are generally found in the upper and lower gum line of teeth.
◦ Scaling and root planing
It is a deep-cleaning procedure which is done under local anesthesia. In addition to removal of plaque and tartar, the rough spots on the tooth are also smoothened.
- Gum graft surgery
This surgery basically involves grafted oral tissues to cover affected area of tooth root surface. It is done to prevent further root exposure, improvement in cosmetics, decrease sensitivity and susceptibility. It helps to prevent further bone loss. This procedure provides a healthy body and a beautiful smile.
- Laser treatment
Laser treatment is suggested as an effective method for treating periodontal diseases. This treatment procedure is taken as an appendage for scaling and root planning. They are used under local anesthesia. This technique aims to remove only affected part in addition to root-surface tartar. The laser is helpful to create a sterile environment by making a biological seal under and near gum line. Depending upon the needs of the patient, the accurate wavelength of the laser is chosen. This procedure is mainly used because of less bleeding and other discomforts after treatment.
- Regenerative procedure
Periodontal diseases often cause damage to nearby bone and tissue of teeth. Regenerative procedure is useful to some of the decayed or lost bone and tissue. In this procedure, the gum-tissue is folded back. It allows removal of disease-causing bacteria. It employs various methods to encourage body’s natural ability to regenerate tissues and bone.
- Dental crown lengthening
This lengthening procedure is able to provide rising or lowering of gum line. The crown lengthening is mainly aimed to correct cosmetic or functional issues. This method is required when decay or fracture in tooth occurs deep below the gum line. It provides two benefits-overall improved health and a beautiful new smile.
- Pocket reduction procedures
Deep pockets are seen around the teeth of people suffering from periodontal diseases. They provide large space for the disease-causing bacteria to survive. To treat these pockets , a method called pocket reduction technique is used. This technique provides an effective maintenance of tooth cleaning.
- Plastic surgery procedures
Dentists often prefer to use plastic surgery procedures to retain an improved smile. This procedure basically involves a variety of treatment methods to the function of teeth as well as nearby structures. The various conditions treated by plastic surgery procedure includes:
◦ Gummy Smile Or Uneven Gum Line
◦ Long Teeth/Exposed Roots
◦ Indentations In The Gums And Jawbone